To study the relevance between the regions and subtype H5N1 outbreaks in wild birds, we divided Thailand into 4 major geographic regions northern, northeastern, central, and southern on the basis of the former administrative region grouping system used by the Ministry of Interior, Thailand. Therefore, migratory birds were considered to be responsible for long distance dispersal of the virus 11 — Most kinds of pneumonia are contagious.
One could argue the fact that infected poultry flocks produce massive amounts of virus, which supports the view that infection in wild birds is mostly seeded from poultry. Trees for the other 7 segments display a similar topology, with clades V1, V2, and EMA clearly separated in each case.
Our aim was to determine the prevalence and distribution of HPAI H5N1 in wild birds and to determine whether an association exists between outbreaks in poultry flocks and in wild birds within different regions in Thailand. The association we found is not necessarily one of cause and effect.
Two of the clades contain exclusively Vietnamese isolates; the smaller of these, with 5 isolates, we label V1; the larger clade, with 9 isolates, is V2.
Through antigenic driftH5N1 has mutated into dozens of highly pathogenic varieties divided into genetic clades which are known from specific isolates, but all currently belonging to genotype Z of avian influenza virus H5N1, now the dominant genotype. Approvals of the study were obtained from the departments of agriculture and people's committees of the three provinces.
If your case is extreme, you may need a ventilator a machine that supports breathing.
Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. We calculated the reproductive power in poultry flocks, a measure for the ability of a poultry flock to infect other susceptible poultry flocks. Transmission of subtype H5N1 to poultry populations by this group of resident bird species is more likely than transmission by other resident birds, including those belonging to the Galliformes, Gruiformes, Piciformes, Psittaciformes, and Struthioniformes orders.
The study showed that poultry farmers are facing several options regarding the management of HPAI suspicions, besides reporting the following: Notably, reproductive power was 1. We could therefore only use the latter 3 regions to investigate whether the presence of infected wild birds was related to the poultry outbreak.
They can also cause pneumonia in people with chronic diseases or weakened immune systems. This is consistent with long standing advice from Health Canada and other health authorities through out the world.
This study presents the evaluation of perceived costs and benefits of highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI passive surveillance in Vietnam.
Symptoms by age Children under 5 years of age may have fast breathing. Viral RNA in plasma is more often detected in patients with fatal disease than in those with nonfatal disease, indicating that levels of viral replication may influence the outcome.
As the bird flu (avian flu) virus is carried by birds, it's very difficult to stop it spreading. However, you can take some general measures to reduce your risk of catching a viral infection. Uchida Y, Chaichoune K, Wiriyarat W, Watanabe C, Hayashi T, Patchimasiri T, Molecular epidemiological analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 subtype isolated from poultry and wild bird in.
There is mixed evidence about the effects of L-carnitine in treating disorders caused by low carnitine levels in people with serious kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. Background. The potential impact of an influenza pandemic can be assessed by calculating a set of transmissibility parameters, the most important being the reproduction number (R), which is defined as the average number of secondary cases generated per typical infectious case.
Influenza virus type A is the most common subtype and is responsible for serious epidemics and pandemics throughout human history such as the (H1N1) ‘Spanish flu’, which was the most virulent virus in human history and caused an estimated 20–40 million deaths worldwide.
Like the regular flu, swine flu can lead to more serious problems including pneumonia, a lung infection, and other breathing problems. And it can make an illness like diabetes or asthma worse.An analysis of the characteristics effects and prevention of the bird flu a disease caused by the ty