The background and history of phoenicia

My father once said that the rich families survived as they were able to bribe and get supplies on the black market. Tiglath-pileser began this process of absorption in Northern Syria about the year B.

The latest sign of her continued domination is found in B.


During the 11th century the Druze faith emerged from a branch of Islam. Assyria did not even now possess any regular fleet, and could only punish a recalcitrant king of Arvad or Tyre by impressing into her service the ships of some of the Phoenician coast-towns, as Sidon, or Gebal, or Accho.

The high point of Phoenician culture and sea power is usually placed c. Sidon, tyro and Byblos were the original cities and the most important, but cities developed in the colonies had the same distribution and constructive pattern.

The Proto-Canaanite script uses around 30 symbols but was not widely used until the rise of new Semitic kingdoms in the 13th and 12th centuries BC. Therefore reaffirming what had previously stated can be said that in the Phoenician art are therefore two fundamental periods; the one that corresponds to a first period with the Egyptian and Assyrian influence and a second period in which a preference is denoted by Greek in the Hellenistic period.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. He left behind him, however, on the mainland opposite the island Tyre, a certain number of his soldiers, with orders to prevent the Tyrians from obtaining, according to their ordinary practice, supplies of water from the continent.

This Qaysi 'victory' gave the Shihab, who were Qaysis themselves and the allies of Lebanon, the rule over Mount-Lebanon. Byblos first became the predominant center from where the Phoenicians dominated the Mediterranean and Erythraean Red Sea routes. The period was also marked by incursions of marauders called Hapiruor Habiru Egyptian: This term was apparently applied by the Egyptians to other peoples or social groups who were of foreign origin.

Many of the most important Phoenician settlements had been established long before this: The customers asked for pieces and general merchandise that responded better to the characteristic of the popular Hellenistic art. Both Napoleon and Al Jazzar, the governor of Acre, requested assistance from the Shihab leader; Bashir, however, remained neutral, declining to assist either combatant.

From his sixth to his twenty-first year Shamaneser carried on an almost continuous war in Syria,[] where his adversaries were the monarchs of Damascus and Hamath, and "the twelve kings beside the sea, above and below,"[] one of whom is expressly declared to have been "Mattan-Baal of Arvad.

Secondly, it was a time when the colonies on the North African coast were reinforced, strengthened, and increased in number; when the Phoenician yoke was rivetted on that vast projection into the Mediterranean which divides that sea into two halves, and goes far to give the power possessing it entire command of the Mediterranean waters.

Lebanese soldiers, — Rising prosperity and peace[ edit ] Lebanese dress from the late 19th century. The tide then swept on.

History of Phoenicia Part 13

The Ottomans attempted to create peace by dividing Mt Lebanon into a Christian district and a Druze district, but this would merely create geographic powerbases for the warring parties, and it plunged the region back into civil conflict which included not only the sectarian warfare but a Maronite revolt against the Feudal class, which ended in with the overthrow of the old feudal system of taxes and levies.

Another Phoenician monarch also was, about the same time, threatened and pardoned. The oldest known representation of the Phoenician alphabet is inscribed on the sarcophagus of the King of Byblos, dating to the 11th century BCE at the latest.

Ithobal, or Eth-baal, was not only king, but also High Priest of Ashtoreth, and thus united the highest sacerdotal with the highest civil authority. It is assumed that it adopted its simplified linear characters from an as-yet unattested early pictorial Semitic alphabet developed some centuries earlier in the southern Levant.

Federation of the cities on a large scale never seems to have occurred. Shalmaneser had discovered during his abortive campaign that there were discords and jealousies among the various Phoenician cities; that none of them submitted without repugnance to the authority of Tyre, and that Sidon especially had an ancient ground of quarrel with her more powerful sister, and always cherished the hope of recovering her original supremacy.

If we may venture to interpret a mutilated inscription,[] he furnished Esarhaddon with a fleet, and manned it with his own sailors. All 62 guest accommodations were redesigned, revealing a more contemporary, residential approach. So long as they paid the fixed tribute, they appear not to have been interfered with in any way.

Bashir II was overthrown as wali when he backed Acre, and fled to Egypt, later to return and organize an army. These people, who had formerly dwelt on the shores of the Erythraean Seahaving migrated to the Mediterranean and settled in the parts which they now inhabit, began at once, they say, to adventure on long voyages, freighting their vessels with the wares of Egypt and Assyria Under the leadership of King David 10th century bcthe Israelites were finally able to break the Philistine power and at the same time to vanquish the native Canaanites, taking the city of Jerusalem.

Carthage continued to flourish in Northwest Africa. See also Levantines The mountainous territory of Mount Lebanon has long been a shelter for minority and persecuted groups, including its historic Maronite Christian majority and Druze communities.

The Phoenicians

This time, the prince had decided to remain in Lebanon and resist the offensive, but the death of his son Emir Ali Beik in Wadi el-Taym was the beginning of his defeat. Lebanon was in the main path of the First Crusade 's advance on Jerusalem.

Art Phoenician art lacks unique characteristics that might distinguish it from its contemporaries. Bypolitical changes in the Ottoman sultanate had resulted in the removal of many of Fakhr-al-Din's enemies from power, allowing Fahkr-al-Din's return to Lebanon, whereupon he was able quickly to reunite all the lands of Lebanon beyond the boundaries of its mountains; and having revenge from Emir Yusuf Pasha ibn Siyfa, attacking his stronghold in Akkar, destroying his palaces and taking control of his lands, and regaining the territories he had to give up in in Sidon, Tripoli, Bekaa among others.

Long after Phoenician culture flourished, or Phoenicia existed as a political entity, Hellenized natives of the region where Canaanites still lived were referred to as "Syro-Phoenicians", as in the Gospel of Mark "The woman was a Greek, a Syro-phoenician by birth".Religion: Canaanite religion.

Phoenicia Prima was subdivided into two provinces, Phoenicia Maritima and Phoenicia Libanensis A.D The second council of Tyre examined the cause of Ibas, Bishop of Edessa, who was accused by the clerics of his church and absolved by this council.

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Tyre is an ancient Phoenician port city which, in myth, is known as the birthplace of Europa (who gave Europe its name) and Dido of Carthage (who gave aid to, and fell in love with, Aeneas of Troy).The name means 'rock' and the city consisted of two parts, the main trade centre on an island, and 'old Tyre', about a half mile opposite on the mainland.

The old city, known as Ushu, was founded c. The island city of Tyre and the city of Sidon were the most powerful states in Phoenicia with Gebal/Byblos and Baalbek as the most important spiritual/religious centers.

Phoenician city-states began to take form c. BCE and. George Rawlinson's "History of Phoenicia" was first published in (mine was, of course, a free ebook from Amazon's Kindle shop).

Many of the methods historians and archaeologists use nowadays to learn more about the past were not yet invented, and some key finds had not yet been discovered.

The background and history of phoenicia
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The Phoenicians