The effect of geography and natural selection in the evolution of apes and humans

Darker skin was favored in regions of strong UV irradiation, such as the African continent, due to the obvious protection it provides against photodamage e. Natural selection has driven population differentiation in modern humans. The HapMap project, for example, has cataloged both allele frequencies and levels of genetic association assessed by measuring linkage disequilibrium, LD across several populations, for 3.

The hillside, which represents about 10, years of time with a volcanic ash at its base dated around 1 million years ago, shows evidence of strong environmental shifts. The fossil baboon Theropithecus oswaldi, which weighed over 58 kg over In these locations, hominin groups encountered distinctly different environments, different plants and animals and foods, and different climatic conditions — a very wide range of temperature and strong variations in aridity and monsoonal rains.

Sexual selection in relation to humans and conclusion III. Modern humans, Homo sapiens, had specialized tools to extract a variety of dietary resources. Today, lactose-intolerance can still be a disadvantageous trait, as illustrated by the considerable mortality observed in non-tolerant African children following consumption of milk products from alimentary aid.

We stopped natural selection as soon as we started being able to rear 95—99 percent of our babies that are born. Introduction Our understanding of the patterns of human genome diversity has improved considerably over the last 10 years.

In my initial list of Falsehoods, I included these two closely related items: Gaining Access to Diverse Foods The first known stone tools date to around 2. Such multidisciplinary efforts are clearly required to clarify the relationship between natural selection and disease and to improve our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms accounting for the present-day differences in disease susceptibility, resistance or progression observed.

Thus, common alleles are typically old and associated with short haplotypes. Rick Potts studied the pattern of climatic turnover in the fauna and the occurrence of archeological sites at Olorgesailie and another site in southern Kenya, and found that several large mammal species that had previously dominated the fauna of this region went extinct between aboutandyears ago, during a period of repeated environmental instability.

Most of the pastyears in East Africa was a time of strong climate oscillation. OK, we can blog about that. Graecopithecus lived in northern and southern Greece about 9 mya, at roughly the same time as Samburupithecus in northern Kenya.

For example, at the inter-species level, BRCA1 appears to evolve adaptively, with some specific codons in its DNA repair domain being targeted by positive selection Huttley et al.

Frano, A-… not verified on 25 Aug permalink Selection works most effectively when resources are limiting and competition for those resources is enhanced.

Furthermore, the estimated times at which these mutations began to increase in frequency differ slightly between Europe and Africa Bersaglieri et al.

Climate Effects on Human Evolution

In particular, much more work is needed with respect to the increasingly recognized role of copy number variation in human adaptation and disease phenotypes, as rapid gains and losses of genomic segments can have a substantial impact on phenotypic variation Feuk et al.

Some of the new tools provided ways for hominins to access food in new ways. A normal sex drive used to be enough to produce a large brood, but this is no longer the case. From social to genetic structures in central Asia.

These findings indicate an improved capacity to adjust to new environments. Neanderthals Endured Climatic Oscillations, Too!. Evolution debate: Are humans continuing to evolve?

in effect, blunted natural selection. evolution is also powered by sexual selection. This means that although we support the survival of. Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.

Natural selection is acting on humans, it always has acted on humans, and always will act on humans. That you, personally, haven’t had to fight a tiger for your survival.

Human evolution

or suffered through a case of malaria, does not mean that natural selection has stopped for all humanity. The Effect of Geography and Natural Selection in the Evolution of Apes and Humans April 25, admin. GET INSTANT FREE QUOTE.

Select Paper Type. The evolution of adaptive versatility is the impetus behind the variability selection idea, which is explored later in this article. Adaptation to Change There are many ideas about the. Human evolution, the process by which human beings developed on Earth from now-extinct primates.

Viewed zoologically, we humans are Homo sapiens, a culture-bearing, upright-walking species that lives on the ground and very likely first evolved in Africa aboutyears ago.

The effect of geography and natural selection in the evolution of apes and humans
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Why is there such a gap between Apes and Humans? : evolution